Events in Travancore History [Chera / Venad / Travancore]
The first five centuries of the Christian era was the period of the first Chera Empire. This period is also known as the Sangam Age.
|A.D. 50 – 100||King Perinchottuthiyan Cheralathan|
|A.D. 52 – 110||King Imayavarampan Neducheralathan|
|A.D. 52||St. Thomas the apostle of Christ arrives at Kodungalloor (Cranganore)|
|A.D. 77||Pliny’s Natural History (mention about Kottar)|
|A.D. 81 – 100||The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (mention about Kottar)|
|A.D. 100 – 125||King Palanai Sel Kezhu Kuttuvan|
|A.D. 110 – 135||Kalanay Kanni Narmuti Cheral|
|A.D. 125 – 180||King Cheran Senkuttuvan|
|A.D. 135 – 173||King Alukotpattu Cheralathan|
|A.D. 150||Ptolemy’s Geography (mention about places in Kanyakumari District)|
|A.D. 165 – 190||King Selvakatunko Azhi Athan|
|A.D. 185 – 201||King Ilancheral Irumporai|
|A.D. 185 – 202||King Perumcheral Irumporai|
|A.D. 219 – 250||King Yanaikatchey Mantharam Cheral Irumporai|
|The period from the 6th Century to the 9th Century A.D. is known as the dark period. There no sufficient evident for the events of that period.|
|A.D. 800 – 1102||The reign of Kulasehara Kings of the Second Chera Empire with Capital at Mahodayapuram (Cranganoreor / Kodungalur)|
|A.D. 800 – 820||King Kulasekhara Alwar|
|A.D. 820 – 844||King Rajasekhara Varma|
|A.D. 844 – 885||King Sthanu Ravivarma|
|A.D. 849||The Tharissappalli Inscription which states, the king of Venad, Ayyan Atikal grants some land to a Christian Church near Quilon)|
|A.D. 885 – 917||King Ramavarma Kulasekhara|
|A.D. 917 – 944||King Goda Ravivarma|
|A.D. 944 – 962||King Indu Kothavarma|
|A.D. 988 – 1005||The Chola King Raja Raja Chola invades the Chera Kingdom (1st Chera – Chola war)|
|A.D. 962 – 1019||King Bhaskara Ravi Varman 1|
|A.D. 1014 – 1019||The Chola King Rajendra Chola invades Kerala (2nd Chera – Chola war)|
|A.D. 1019 – 1021||King Bhaskara Ravi Varma II|
|A.D. 1022 – 1028||King Veera Kerala|
|A.D. 1028 – 1043||King Raja Simha|
|A.D. 1043 – 1082||King Bhaskara Ravi Varma III|
|A.D. 1034 – 1036||3rd Chera – Chola War|
|A. D. 1082 – 1090||King Ravi Rama Varma|
|A.D. 1090 – 1102||King Rama Varma Kulasekhara|
|A.D. 1075 – 1102||4th Chera – Chola War|
|* Fall and Destruction of Mahodyapuram.
* Rama Varma Kulasekahara shifted the capital from Mahodyapuram to Quilon, which was the capital of Venad, a principality under the Cheras.
* Rama Varma Kulasekhara with the help of a suicide squad, defeated the Chola army.
* As the capital was shifted from Mahodyapuram to Quilon, marked the dissolution of Second Chera Empire.
* Venad rose as a powerful Kingdom
|Venad with Quilon as Capital|
|A.D. 1102 – 1125||King Kothavarma|
|A.D. 1125 – 1155||King Veera Kerala Varma
Renovation of Sri Padmanabha Swami Temple at Trivandrum
|A.D. 1155 – 1165||King Veera Ravi Varma|
|A.D. 1165 – 1175||King Aditya Varma|
|A.D. 1175 – 1195||King Udaya Marthanda Varma|
|A.D. 1195 – 1205||King Veera Rama Varma|
|A.D. 1205 – 1215||King Veera Rama Kerala Varma|
|A.D. 1215 – 1240||King Ravi Kerala Varma|
|A.D. 1240 – 1253||King Padmanabha Marthanda Varma|
|* The history of Venad from A.D. 1253 – 1299 is not clear.
* A powerful King Jayasimha is said to be the ruler of Venad at that time.
* Venad was also called as Desinganad, which derived its name after Jayasimha.
|A.D. 1299 – 1313||King Ravi Varma Kulasekahara
He was a Great warrior. He defeated the Chola and Pandya Kings and expanded the kingdom almost the whole of South India)
|A.D. 1314 – 1344||King Veera Udhaya Marthanda Varma|
|A.D. 1344 – 1350||King Veera Kerala Varma|
|A.D. 1350 – 1376||King Eravi Eravi Varma|
|A.D. 1376 – 1383||King Aditya Varma Sarvanganathan|
|A.D. 1383 – 1444||King Chera Udhaya Marthanda Varma|
|A.D. 1444 – 1458||King Ravi Varma|
|A.D. 1458 – 1469||King Virarama Marthanda Varma Kulasekhara|
|A.D. 1469 – 1484||King Kotha Atitya Varma|
|A.D. 1484 – 1512||King Ravi Ravi Varma|
|A.D. 1516 – 1535||King Bhutala Veera Udhaya Marthanda Varma|
|A.D. 1541||Arrival of St. Francis Xaviour|
|A.D. 1535 – 1545||King Veera Kerala Varma|
|A.D. 1545 – 1556||King Rama Varma|
|A.D. 1592||Formation of Dutch East India Company|
|A.D. 1600||Formation of English East India Company|
|A.D. 1611 – 1663||King Ravi Varma|
|A.D. 1634||The forces of Thirumala Nayak of Madurai invade Venad. Death of Eravikkutty Pillai, the Chief of army of Venad in the war.|
|A.D. 1644||The British establish their factory at Vizhinjam at Venad|
|A.D. 1672 – 1677||King Aditya Varma|
|A.D. 1677 – 1684||Queen Umayamma Rani|
|* By now, the Venad has shrunk to a small size.
* Kalkulam was the Capital of Venad.
* Mukilan, a Mughal invader was chased away and was killed in the war.
* Umayamma Rani got assistance from Kerala Varma, the Raja of Kottayam, in administration.
* Kerala Varma abolished the social evils such as Pulappedi and Munnarppedi
|A.D. 1684 – 1718||King Ravi Varma|
|A.D. 1697||Narasappayya of Madurai invades Travancore|
|* Venad was hereafter known as Thiruvithamcode or Thiruvitamcore
* Travancore is the anglicised for of Thiruvithancore.
* By the 18th Century, the name Travancore became more popular than Venad.
|A.D. 1718 – 1721||King Aditya Varma|
|A.D. 1721 – 1729||King Rama Varma|
|A.D. 1729 – 1758||King Marthanda Varma|
|A.D. 1735 – 1757||Ramayyan Dalawa – Marthanda Varma’s able minister.|
|A.D. 1741, August 01||King Marthanda Varma defeats the Dutch at Colachel.|
|A.D. 1742||King Marthanda Varma captures the Dutch fort at Quilon and the virtual collapse of the Dutch in India|
|A.D. 1746||King Marthanda Varma annexe Kayamkulam and Ambalapuzha to Travancore|
|A.D. 1749 – 1750||King Marthanda Varma annexe Thekkumkur and Vadakkumkur to Travancore|
|A.D. 1750||King Marthanda Varma dedicates his expanded Kingdom of Travancore to Sri Padmanabha, the deity of Sri Padmanabha Swami Temple|
|A.D. 1757||King Marthanda Varma and Raja of Cochin enter into a treaty against the Zamorin|
|A.D. 1758 – 1798||King Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (Dharma Raja)|
|A.D. 1762 – 1763||The Zamorin withdraws from Alangad, Parur and Trichur before the joint forces of Travancore – Cochin|
|A.D. 1789||The Dutch sell Kodungallur and Ayakkotta to Travancore King|
|A.D. 1789 – 1790||War between the Travancore army and Tippu Sultan. Tippu leaves Kerala.|
|A.D. 1795||Treaty between the British and the Travancore Raja|
|A.D. 1798 – 1810||King Bala Rama Varma I|
|A.D. 1801 – 1809||Velu Thampi as the Divan of Travancore|
|A.D. 1808 – 1809||Velu Thampi’s war with the British, His Kundra Proclamation, His Martyrdom|
|A.D. 1810 – 1815||Queen Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai|
|A.D. 1810||Col. Munro becomes the Resident of Travancore and Cochin|
|A.D. 1811||Col. Munro also takes charge as the Divan of Travancore|
|A.D. 1815 – 1829||Queen Rani Gouri Parvathi Bai|
|A.D. 1829 – 1847||King Swathi Thirunal|
|A.D. 1834||Establishment of First English school at Trivandrum|
|A.D. 1836||Establishment of Observatory at Trivandrum|
|A.D. 1847 – 1860||King Utram Thirunal Marthanda Varma|
|A.D. 1853||Abolition of Slavery in Travancore and Cochin|
|A.D. 1853||Establishment of Museum and Zoo at Trivandrum|
|A.D. 1860 – 1880||King Ayilyam Thirunal|
|A.D. 1866||Maharaja’s Arts College (Now University College) started at Trivandrum|
|A.D. 1880 – 1885||King Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma|
|A.D. 1882||Establishment of the High Court at Travancore|
|A.D. 1885 – 1924||King Sree Moolam Thirunal|
|A.D. 1888||Legislative council established in Travancore|
|A.D. 1924 – 1931||Queen Rani Sethu Lakshmi Bai|
|A.D. 1931 – 1949||King Sri Chitra Thirunal Balarama Varma|
|A.D. 1936||Temple entry proclamation in Travancore|
|A.D. 1947||Travancore joins the India Union|
|A.D. 1949||Formation of the Union of Travancore – Cochin State|
|A.D. 1954||Travancore Government introduced “Double Decker” bus service from Trivandrum to Nagercoil and vice versa|
|A.D. 1956, November 1||Kanyakumari District separated from Travancore and merged with Tamil Nadu State|
Known facts about Events in Travancore is given here.
ERRORS & OMISSIONS EXCEPTED…. PLEASE EXCUSE….