Events in Travancore History [Chera / Venad / Travancore]

events in travancore Maharaja of Travancore from The Land of Charity


The first five centuries of the Christian era was the period of the first Chera Empire. This period is also known as the Sangam Age.

Chera Empire


A.D. 50 – 100King Perinchottuthiyan Cheralathan
A.D. 52 – 110King Imayavarampan Neducheralathan
A.D. 52St. Thomas the apostle of Christ arrives at Kodungalloor (Cranganore)
A.D. 77Pliny’s Natural History (mention about Kottar)
A.D. 81 – 100The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (mention about Kottar)
A.D. 100 – 125King Palanai Sel Kezhu Kuttuvan
A.D. 110 – 135Kalanay Kanni Narmuti Cheral
A.D. 125 – 180King Cheran Senkuttuvan
A.D. 135 – 173King Alukotpattu Cheralathan
A.D. 150Ptolemy’s Geography (mention about places in Kanyakumari District)
A.D. 165 – 190King Selvakatunko Azhi Athan
A.D. 185 – 201King Ilancheral Irumporai
A.D. 185 – 202King Perumcheral Irumporai
A.D. 219 – 250King Yanaikatchey Mantharam Cheral Irumporai


The period from the 6th Century to the 9th Century A.D. is known as the dark period. There no sufficient evident for the events of that period.


A.D. 800 – 1102The reign of Kulasehara Kings of the Second Chera Empire with Capital at Mahodayapuram (Cranganoreor / Kodungalur)
A.D. 800 – 820King Kulasekhara Alwar
A.D. 820 – 844King Rajasekhara Varma
A.D. 844 – 885King Sthanu Ravivarma
A.D. 849The Tharissappalli Inscription which states, the king of Venad, Ayyan Atikal grants some land to a Christian Church near Quilon)
A.D. 885 – 917King Ramavarma Kulasekhara
A.D. 917 – 944King Goda Ravivarma
A.D. 944 – 962King Indu Kothavarma
A.D. 988 – 1005The Chola King Raja Raja Chola invades the Chera Kingdom (1st Chera – Chola war)
A.D. 962 – 1019King Bhaskara Ravi Varman 1
A.D. 1014 – 1019The Chola King Rajendra Chola invades Kerala (2nd Chera – Chola war)
A.D. 1019 – 1021King Bhaskara Ravi Varma II
A.D. 1022 – 1028King Veera Kerala
A.D. 1028 – 1043King Raja Simha
A.D. 1043 – 1082King Bhaskara Ravi Varma III
A.D. 1034 – 10363rd Chera – Chola War
A. D. 1082 – 1090King Ravi Rama Varma
A.D. 1090 – 1102King Rama Varma Kulasekhara
A.D. 1075 – 11024th Chera – Chola War


Venad Kingdom


* Fall and Destruction of Mahodyapuram.
* Rama Varma Kulasekahara shifted the capital from Mahodyapuram to Quilon, which was the capital of Venad, a principality under the Cheras.
* Rama Varma Kulasekhara with the help of a suicide squad, defeated the Chola army.
* As the capital was shifted from Mahodyapuram to Quilon, marked the dissolution of Second Chera Empire.
* Venad rose as a powerful Kingdom


Venad with Quilon as Capital


A.D. 1102 – 1125King Kothavarma
A.D. 1125 – 1155King Veera Kerala Varma
Renovation of Sri Padmanabha Swami Temple at Trivandrum
A.D. 1155 – 1165King Veera Ravi Varma
A.D. 1165 – 1175King Aditya Varma
A.D. 1175 – 1195King Udaya Marthanda Varma
A.D. 1195 – 1205King Veera Rama Varma
A.D. 1205 – 1215King Veera Rama Kerala Varma
A.D. 1215 – 1240King Ravi Kerala Varma
A.D. 1240 – 1253King Padmanabha Marthanda Varma


* The history of Venad from A.D. 1253 – 1299 is not clear.
* A powerful King Jayasimha is said to be the ruler of Venad at that time.
* Venad was also called as Desinganad, which derived its name after Jayasimha.


A.D. 1299 – 1313King Ravi Varma Kulasekahara
He was a Great warrior. He defeated the Chola and Pandya Kings and expanded the kingdom almost the whole of South India)
A.D. 1314 – 1344King Veera Udhaya Marthanda Varma
A.D. 1344 – 1350King Veera Kerala Varma
A.D. 1350 – 1376King Eravi Eravi Varma
A.D. 1376 – 1383King Aditya Varma Sarvanganathan
A.D. 1383 – 1444King Chera Udhaya Marthanda Varma
A.D. 1444 – 1458King Ravi Varma
A.D. 1458 – 1469King Virarama Marthanda Varma Kulasekhara
A.D. 1469 – 1484King Kotha Atitya Varma
A.D. 1484 – 1512King Ravi Ravi Varma
A.D. 1516 – 1535King Bhutala Veera Udhaya Marthanda Varma
A.D. 1541Arrival of St. Francis Xaviour
A.D. 1535 – 1545King Veera Kerala Varma
A.D. 1545 – 1556King Rama Varma
A.D. 1592Formation of Dutch East India Company
A.D. 1600Formation of English East India Company
A.D. 1611 – 1663King Ravi Varma
A.D. 1634The forces of Thirumala Nayak of Madurai invade Venad. Death of Eravikkutty Pillai, the Chief of army of Venad in the war.
A.D. 1644The British establish their factory at Vizhinjam at Venad
A.D. 1672 – 1677King Aditya Varma
A.D. 1677 – 1684Queen Umayamma Rani


* By now, the Venad has shrunk to a small size.
* Kalkulam was the Capital of Venad.
* Mukilan, a Mughal invader was chased away and was killed in the war.
* Umayamma Rani got assistance from Kerala Varma, the Raja of Kottayam, in administration.
* Kerala Varma abolished the social evils such as Pulappedi and Munnarppedi


A.D. 1684 – 1718King Ravi Varma
A.D. 1697Narasappayya of Madurai invades Travancore


Travancore Kingdom


* Venad was hereafter known as Thiruvithamcode or Thiruvitamcore
* Travancore is the anglicised for of Thiruvithancore.
* By the 18th Century, the name Travancore became more popular than Venad.


A.D. 1718 – 1721King Aditya Varma
A.D. 1721 – 1729King Rama Varma
A.D. 1729 – 1758King Marthanda Varma
A.D. 1735 – 1757Ramayyan Dalawa – Marthanda Varma’s able minister.
A.D. 1741, August 01King Marthanda Varma defeats the Dutch at Colachel.
A.D. 1742King Marthanda Varma captures the Dutch fort at Quilon and the virtual collapse of the Dutch in India
A.D. 1746King Marthanda Varma annexe Kayamkulam and Ambalapuzha to Travancore
A.D. 1749 – 1750King Marthanda Varma annexe Thekkumkur and Vadakkumkur to Travancore
A.D. 1750King Marthanda Varma dedicates his expanded Kingdom of Travancore to Sri Padmanabha, the deity of Sri Padmanabha Swami Temple
A.D. 1757King Marthanda Varma and Raja of Cochin enter into a treaty against the Zamorin
A.D. 1758 – 1798King Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (Dharma Raja)
A.D. 1762 – 1763The Zamorin withdraws from Alangad, Parur and Trichur before the joint forces of Travancore – Cochin
A.D. 1789The Dutch sell Kodungallur and Ayakkotta to Travancore King
A.D. 1789 – 1790War between the Travancore army and Tippu Sultan. Tippu leaves Kerala.
A.D. 1795Treaty between the British and the Travancore Raja
A.D. 1798 – 1810King Bala Rama Varma I
A.D. 1801 – 1809Velu Thampi as the Divan of Travancore
A.D. 1808 – 1809Velu Thampi’s war with the British, His Kundra Proclamation, His Martyrdom
A.D. 1810 – 1815Queen Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai
A.D. 1810Col. Munro becomes the Resident of Travancore and Cochin
A.D. 1811Col. Munro also takes charge as the Divan of Travancore
A.D. 1815 – 1829Queen Rani Gouri Parvathi Bai
A.D. 1829 – 1847King Swathi Thirunal
A.D. 1834Establishment of First English school at Trivandrum
A.D. 1836Establishment of Observatory at Trivandrum
A.D. 1847 – 1860King Utram Thirunal Marthanda Varma
A.D. 1853Abolition of Slavery in Travancore and Cochin
A.D. 1853Establishment of Museum and Zoo at Trivandrum
A.D. 1860 – 1880King Ayilyam Thirunal
A.D. 1866Maharaja’s Arts College (Now University College) started at Trivandrum
A.D. 1880 – 1885King Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma
A.D. 1882Establishment of the High Court at Travancore
A.D. 1885 – 1924King Sree Moolam Thirunal
A.D. 1888Legislative council established in Travancore
A.D. 1924 – 1931Queen Rani Sethu Lakshmi Bai
A.D. 1931 – 1949King Sri Chitra Thirunal Balarama Varma
A.D. 1936Temple entry proclamation in Travancore
A.D. 1947Travancore joins the India Union
A.D. 1949Formation of the Union of Travancore – Cochin State
A.D. 1954Travancore Government introduced “Double Decker” bus service from Trivandrum to Nagercoil and vice versa
A.D. 1956, November 1Kanyakumari District separated from Travancore and merged with Tamil Nadu State

Known facts about Events in Travancore is given here.

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